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A Moral Equivalent of War

By Paul Lee

Over one hundred years ago, William James delivered a lecture at Stanford University where he was a visiting professor. Not exactly a fish out of water he did not have a high opinion of his peers. This is what he says in a letter to a friend:

“The drawback is, of course, the great surrounding human vacuum—the historic silence fairly rings in your ears when you listen—and the social insipidity.”[1]

Stanford was not the Harvard of the West as far as he was concerned. The lecture should have been given at Harvard as it was one of the most famous James ever gave. The lecture came to be known as “The Moral Equivalent of War” when it was published in l910. In l906, the title was: “The Psychology of the War Spirit.” An earlier version was given at the Thirteenth Universal Peace Congress in l904.[2] An accompanying talk was entitled: “The Energies of Man.”

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Circle Trail

Santa Cruz Circle Trail Start anywhere for a virtual tour of the Circle Trail.

  1. Lighthouse Field State Beach
  2. The Homeless Garden Project
  3. Natural Bridges State Park
  4. Long Marine Lab
  5. Antonelli Pond
  6. Arroyo Seco Canyon
  7. University of California Arboretum
  8. The University of California Agro-ecology Farm
  9. The Chadwick Garden
  10. Pogonip
  11. The San Lorenzo River levee promenade
  12. The Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk
  13. Municipal Wharf
  14. Natural History Museum
  15. Santa Cruz Yacht Harbor
  16. Arana Gulch
  17. DeLaveaga Park

Ecology Hall of Fame

Dedicated to heroes of the American environmental movement.

We are pleased to present our six charter inductees:

Alan Chadwick Henry Thoreau Rachel Carson John Burroughs John Muir Aldo Leopold

Additional people honored in the Ecology Hall of Fame:

Living Legends of the environmental movement:


Pogonip Pogonip offers a wide variety of habitats and microclimates, including open meadows, dark cool forests, creek beds, and three virgin stands of redwood. Within the park there are miles of hiking trails and endless sites for informal picnics. The Circle Trail Route follows Spring Trail, Brayshaw Trail, and Golf Club Drive. Dogs should be kept on leash, both because they make the deer nervous and harder to see and because many parts of Pogonip are prime poison oak habitat. Dog owners regularly contract poison oak dermatitis after their pet has frisked about in Pogonip.

Among the many magnificent trees in the Pogonip is one whose grandeur has earned it it the name The Sacred Oak. It dominates a meadow that slopes down to the right of the Spring Trail about 300 yards north of the Brayshaw Trail junction.

For more information, see the Pogonip website sponsored by the Pogonip Foundation.

Who Killed Cock Robin?

An Earth Day 2000 Address by Paul Lee

The Ballad of Rachel Carson
and the Historical Origins of
the Environmental Crisis and
Earth Day

An Earth Day, 2000, Talk, by Paul A. Lee, PhD

In the summer of l969, I took a wilderness canoe trip with Gaylord Nelson, the Senator from Wisconsin. It was part of Senator Nelson’s effort to pass a Wild Rivers’ Bill to save some of the waters of Northern Wisconsin. I should have told him about our organic garden at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and our remarkable gardener–Alan Chadwick–whom E. F. Schumacher called “the world’s greatest living gardener”, because, when months later I saw the Senator announce Earth Day on the Today Show, I thought, oh boy, our garden has prepared the way.

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